Le Mexique
 Social-Political Organization


With regards to its’ constitution, Mexico is a representative, democratic and federal Republic. It is comprised of 31 states and also of a Federal District (Mexico and its immediate neighbours).  

The executive power is represented by the President, who is elected by popular vote, directly with one single tour and gaining the relative majority. The President is elected and then in power for President names and revokes the Ministers, Attorney General (Minister of Justice), Ambassadors and the general Consuls.
Upon requiring support with regards to the legislature, the Federal Government also has power just as is also the case for its North-American equivalent. They can dismiss the State Governors elected by popular vote for cases of serious misconduct, corruption, etc. Elsewhere, the taxation income is for the most part reserved by the Federal Government who only redistributes a small part to the States.

Congress is divided into two rooms: the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The Chamber of Deputies has 500 elected representatives who are elected by a majority poll and a further 200 elected by proportional representation and has a term of 3 years. The Senate is comprised of 128 members, thus four Senators per federal entity (32 states X 4), elected by popular vote for a period of six years. Following the last elections in July 2006, PAN (the Party in power since 2000) did not have the absolute majority within the Senate or the Chamber of Deputies, even if it became the number one political force in Congress. They will therefore be obliged to count on the support of the opposition in order to pass laws.

Main Political Parties
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionado Institucional – PRI): This political Party was formed in 1929. It was formed in order to bring together all of the left and right-wing Mexicans – in power again as of 01 Dec 2012.   
National Action Party (Partido de Accion nacional – PAN): This political Party was formed in 1939 and in power from 2000. Left-wing Party. Its’ electorate is composed of the Mexican working class – the Party was re-elected in July 2006.
Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica – PRD): This political Party was formed in 1989 following an internal split with the PRI. Centre-left nationalist party, with a majority electorate of those belonging to the lower-middle class.

Vicente Fox (2000-2006)
The year 2000 is remembered for the presidential and legislative elections, the mayoral elections within the capital of Mexico and also the implementation of the Free Trade agreement signed with the European Union.
The results of the presidential elections 02 July 2000 were as follows:

Vincente FOX (PAN): 43.43% of the vote
Francisco Labastida (PRI): 36.88%
Cuauhtémoc Cardenas (PRD): 17%

The PAN, the party which supported Vincente Fox’s campaign, did not have the majority within Parliament: they only had 48/500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 47/ 128 seats in the Senate. The PRI lost power after many years in power however did not collapse – they had more seats than PAN in the Chamber of Deputies (222 compared to 148 held by PAN) and 58 seats within the Senate. As for PRD, they gained 97 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. 

PRD retains the government of the Federal district of Mexico.

This fragment of legislative power has complicated the governmental action which has had to consistently find compromises with the PRI, PRD or other smaller parties. The internal disagreements within PAN have further complicated the situation. The structural reformations as promised by Vincente Fox (particularly within the areas such as energy, taxation, employment and justice) are at a standstill particularly with regards to taxation, despite some slow progress.   
The fragmentation that is even more pronounced is that of the Mexican political landscape since the legislative elections in 2003 when the presidential election results were extremely close between candidates, Roberto Madrazo Pintado of the PRI, Felipe Calderón of the PRN and Manuel Lopez Obrador representing the PRD.
At a local level, the PRI remains at the head of 17 states compared to just 9 for the PAN. Manuel Lopez Obrador, PRD, assumed the succession of Cuauhtemoc Cardenas and Rosario Robles as the Mayor of Mexico up to 2005.

map of MexicoSince 01/07/2000, the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and Mexico was implemented in order to considerably reinforce the access capabilities of European companies, in particular France, and also to progressively find themselves on equal footing with their Northern American competitors. The Free Trade Agreement does not only apply to trade but also to state purchasing and the protection of intellectual property. The freedom of importation is planned as the next stage over ten years (2000-2010).

Right picture : map of Mexico

Mexico has signed numerous Free Trade agreements   with over 28 countries, is a member of the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI), also of the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC) and the G-3 (Group of Three) with Columbia and Venezuela. Free Trade agreements with Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras were signed in 2001 and in 2004 with Uruguay. An economic partnership agreement was signed with Japan in 2005.
President V. Fox (ex-director of Coca-Cola in Mexico and ex-Governor in Guanajuato) is committed to recovery and democratisation however the balance sheet is relative: increase in crime, high emigration to the USA, many social and regional inequalities, 40% of the population living with less than 2 USD$ a day, discrepancies within the educational and healthcare systems. On the other hand, there is a solid industrial and commercial base that is in some ways comparable to those found in large industrialised countries.

Mexico is a member of the OECD and the first economic power within Latin America. Positioned twelfth in commercial power and tenth in industrial power, these figures are higher than the total of the other countries within the region. Numerous Free Trade agreements are in place in order to reduce Mexican dependence on the US.
Since May 2006, Mexico chairs the UN Human Rights Council. In assuming this function, Mexico has the main responsibility in managing the efforts deployed by the international community for consolidating and ensuring that the aim and mission of this new council, which was formed 15 March 2006. Mexican presence in this area reveals the interest held by the Mexican government for this theme.

F.Calderon (2006-2012)
Federal elections are necessary for the presidency of the Republic, the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate as well as local elections for the President, heads of delegations and local deputies for the town of Mexico as well as local deputies and mayors within Campeche, Colima, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Morelos, Nuevo Léon, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí and Sonora.
Elected President Felipe CALDERON, National Action Party, with a relative majority in Parliament as he replenished the Deputies (500) and the Senators (128).

Felipe Calderon was elected with a 0.56% win, an advance with almost 41.6 million ballots recorded with a participation level just less than 60%.   

P.A.N (right catholic) – almost 15 million votes, 35.89% (Felipe Calderón)
P.R.D (left) – approximately 14.7 million votes, 35.33% (Lopez Obrado – former Mayor of Mexico)
233,831 votes separated the two candidates for 71 million votes recorded. For the first time, the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) candidate who had had an interrupted presidency from 1929 to 2000 came in third place, Roberto Madrazo had gained just 9,2 million votes, thus 22.3% of the vote. In the Chamber of Deputies as within the Senate, a transition between forces is evident. The PAN became the number one political force.  

Chamber of Deputies total 500 (Senate total 128)
PAN 206 (52)
PRD 126 (29)
Smaller parties 64 (14)
As regards the elections for the Mexican Mayor, Marcelo EBRARD won the election and was the third PRD mayor since 1997. 

Current Presidential Power (2012-2018)
July 2012: The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) and its allies narrowly lost the majority of the two rooms within the Mexican Congress, as announced by the electoral authorities.  This therefore gives leverage power to the smaller parties and increases the chances that the parties will try to unite the deputies of rival parties.     
The PRI has held the Mexican presidency for 71 years and was declared the victory of the presidential election on 1 July 2012, thus marking the return to higher state function than that which it left in 2000.
Interviewed by numerous Mexican and international media, M. Peña Nieto has confirmed that the election was clear and democratic, denying all claims and accusations of fraud.

Elsewhere, M. Peña Nieto has announced the structural reforms that he will be implementing during his presidency, announcing priority areas as those such as financial, energy as well as social security and employment.
The new president has also confirmed that the government will not make any pact with organised crime. His security advisor,  Oscar Naranjo , ex-director of the Columbian police, has indicated that one of his recommendations consists of creating shock groups in order to fight against drug trafficking.

Legislative Elections
According to the IFE results, PRI won 213/ 500 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and only won a majority due to forming an alliance with the Green Party (28 seats) and PAN (10 seats). In the Senate, PRI won 52/ 128 seats and did not win an absolute majority even if it had formed an alliance with the Green Party (9 seats) and PAN (1 seat). The left-wing coalition (PRD-PT-MC) makes up the second political force, with 135 deputies and 27 Senators. PAN won 114 seats in the Lower Chamber and 38 in the Senate.

Local Elections
Six new governors and the Mexican Mayor were all elected on 1 July, 2012. Miguel Angel Mancera (PRD) became the Mayor of Mexico with 64% of the vote. Elsewhere, the victors of governmental posts were Miguel Márquez Márquez (PAN) in the state of Guanajuato (49% des voix), Aristóteles Sandoval (PRI) in Jalisco (40%), Graco Ramírez (PRD) in Morelos (43%), Manuel Velasco Coello (PRI) in Chiapas (66%), Rolando Zapata Bello (PRI) in Yucatán (33%) and Arturo Nuñez Jiménez (PRD) in Tabasco (50%).

Reorientation of PAN
President Felipe Calderón has estimated that the defeat of PAN in the elections forced the party to reform, a position that is equally defended by Juan Ignacio Zavala and Roberto Gil, who called for an auto-criticism allowing an ideological reformation of the Party.  
In favour of a reflection rather than a complete reformation of the party, Gustave Madero, national President of PAN, has announced that he does not intend to leave his post before the end of his term in office in November 2013.

The National Action Party (right) of former President Felipe Calderon, arrived third in the presidential election winning 114 seats in the Lower Chamber and 38 in the Senate, whilst the Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD, left) Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador won 101 seats. The PRD allied with two smaller parties and the combined votes pushed the left-wing to second place in the Congress, with 134 deputies and 27 Senators.

The Grand Journal dated Dec 07, 2012 Mexican current news with the presentation of Enrique Peña Nieto’s presidential team, the inauguration of Miguel Angel Mancera as President of the Capital City…    
Enrique Peña Nieto announces the members of his governmental team:

The newly integrated people and Mexican ministers have taken on their roles as of Monday, unsurprisingly for the political analysts who already knew the main figures within the presidential team, definitively PRI as well as some PAN which are now in power. 

9 ceremonies in all correspond to the 9 most important ministers who were distinguished for celebrating the passing of power between former PAN Ministers and incoming PRI Ministers. 
As well as Luis Videgaray, right arm man to Enrique Peña Nieto, who inherits the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (SHCP) within Mexico as a substitute for José Antonio Meade Kuribreña, who moves to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (SRE).

At the head of SEDESOL (Ministry of Social Development), is Rosario Robles, a left-wing ex-militant who recently moved to the PRI. Mercedes Juan López is responsible for the Ministry of Health (SS), whilst Emilio Chuayffet takes on the management of the Ministry of Public Education (SEP).
Other important ministers include Ildefonso Guajardo for Economy (SE), Claudia Ruiz Massieu Salinas responsible for the Ministry of Tourism (Sectur), that of the land reform (SRA), for which Jorge Carlos Ramírez Marín is responsible and also Gerardo Ruiz Esparza who is responsible for Communications and Transportation. 

Finally, the Ministry of Energy (SENER) which will be managed by Pedro Joaquín Coldwell, ex-party (PRI) leader.

The first to have received their new titles as of 1 December 2012, the day of the switchover of presidential powers, must be considered. The position of Prime Minister (SEGOB) has been given to Miguel Ángel Osorio Chong and the Head of the Army: The National Minister of Defence has again been given to Salvador Cienfuegos and that of the Marines to Vidal Francisco Soberón, who have all reaffirmed their loyalty to the armies and support for their new President. 
With regards to Ministries of Public Security and Public Service, Peña Nieto has indicated his intention to do away with them which is the reason for no successor having been announced. It remains for the Union Congress to approve this proposition.

The Congress will also have to approve the appointment of Jesús Murillo Karam to the post of Public Ministry (Procuraduria General de la Républica – PGR).

Finally, the consideration of the presidential designations at the head of para-governmental sector companies:  Emilio Lozoya Austin will be the Manager of PEMEX (Petroleos Mexicanos), Francisco Rojas will be Manager of the CFE (Federal Electricity Commission), Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada  as Manager of ISSTE (State Workers Social Security and Services Institute) and José Antonio González Anaya as Director of IMSS (Social Security Institute).

One must remember that in Mexico, as in the United States, the constitutional regime is presidential, implying that the leading administration talks of ‘secretariats’ in order to progress legal actions. In contrast, in parliamentary regimes such as France, the Presidents form the Ministries. The difference is in the responsibilities of the Governments with respect to the Congress, in the first regime this responsibility is non-existent and in the second, the ministers must come from a parliamentary majority, must be responsible for them and can also be revoked by them.
The presidential team analyses the Pact for Mexico :
Just like a letter to Father Christmas and in a superhuman attempt to achieve convergence, the various Mexican political parties have given the Mexican pact to the new presidential team. This pact has come from agreements between the various factions on the development route to be completed by the country. Annexed to this is the Recovery Package which reinforces the political parties’ claims on the broad programme areas of the Mexican economic governance.
The stated purpose of this pact is to form a peaceful, integrated, responsible, prosperous and well-educated Mexico.
The presidential team therefore board currently on the strategies which will be implemented in order to honour this pact and have also informed that they are in the process of analysing the best step to follow in order to complete Enrique Peña Nieto’s 266 electoral promises and his 13 presidential decisions which were broadcasted during his first speech to the Nation.
Enrique Peña Nieto who manages these working sessions has announced during a press conference that he is ready to ‘work with passion for Mexico’ in order to ensure the completion of the Nation’s big plans which have been agreed upon and signed within the Pact (peace, education, social integration, responsibility and wealth).  

Miguel Angel Mancera pledges allegiance as DF President.  
Miguel Ángel Mancera Espinosa, elected in the final election in July for the position of President of the Federal District 2012-2018, has mid-december 2012 sworn allegiance, thus making official his succession to Marcelo Ebrard Casaubon.

The inauguration ceremony is organised by the National Legislative Assembly along with the newly appointed Prime Minister, Miguel Ángel Osorio Chong who represents President Enrique Peña Nieto and the newly appointed Edgar Elias Azar, member for the Superior Tribunal for Local Justice who have endorsed this new position. 



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