This is a charming colonial village located 70 km (43miles) from Mérida
, on the road to Chichén
. It got the nickname of "ciudad amarilla"
because of its yellow-earth and white houses. This village is part
of the "magic villages
". It is the oldest village in Yucatán
. Its name in Mayan language is Itzamatul or "dew
coming from the sky". It is an important trade center in the
region. Seven Mayan pyramids were built; one of them was used by
the Spanish for the construction of the du majestic convent San
Antonio de Padua.
Anthony of Padua monastery was built on top of the Popul Chac pyramid,
using its stones. It is a true symbol : The most important catholic
monastery of New Spain
was made from the most important Mayan temple. Fray Diego de Landa
and the Franciscan missionaries needed an imposing and majestic
monastery in order to impose the Hispanic culture and catholic religion
on the Mayan people and to mark the end of one world and the advent
of another. You still can see some traces of the Mayans artisans
on some stones. By the side, in the church, you can see frescos
dating from the sixteenth century.
The convent has the biggest atrium after San Peter’s in the
Vatican. Pope John Paul visited it while in Mexico
in 1993. Every August 15th, there is the celebration of the Virgin
of Izamal. Visitors can have a ride in a horse drawn carriage in
a labyrinth of colorful streets, parks and historic places. Fray
Diego de Landa (second Bishop of Yucatán in the sixteenth
century) seems to be alive and talks about the everyday things of
this village proud of its past. By night, experience the show of
the welkin lined with the shadows of the pyramids, temples and other
big colonial buildings. It feels like you are dreaming !
Light and Sound « Voice and Magic of Izamal », in the
Convent every Tuesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday at 8:30 PM
in Spanish and Maya, with the lighted monastery in the background.
It is Fantastic!
Two blocks north from the Zócalo, the Kinich Kakmó
pyramid, built to honor Sun God, mainly excavated, is worth the
detour. With 195 m (639 feet) wide, it was one of the biggest in
On the road towards Mérida,
stop at the entrance of the village of Hoctún, famous for
its strange cemetery with graves painted with floral designs by
What does it mean : tentative list in the World Heritage
A Tentative List is an inventory of those properties
which each State Party intends to consider for nomination during
the following years. States Parties are encouraged to submit in
their Tentative Lists, properties which they consider to be cultural
and/or natural heritage of outstanding universal value and therefore
suitable for inscription on the World Heritage List.
Extract of Unesco website :
Izamal is known as the "Hill City" because it has in its
urban zone, several archaeological vestiges located on the hill
sides. The extension of the remains of pre Hispanic constructions
as estimated could occupy an area of 10 kilometers square.
Today city of Izamal was a remarkable site of the
ancient Mayan civilization. It was probably the largest large city
of plains of the north of Yucatán. The investigators have
found and catalogued around 80 pre Hispanic structures within the
layout of the city. One of the most important pyramids is the Kinich
Kak Moo, that is the third pre-Hispanic structure of greater volume
in Mexico and at least two stone roads are known,
called sacbeóob (ways) that communicated it with other important
The dimension of its buildings and the network
of roads, constructed between 600 and 800 A.C., are evidence of
the political and economic power that Izamal exerted on a vast territory,
larger than five thousand kilometers square. Here a particular construction
technique was developed, mainly by using megalithic carved blocks,
with defined architectonical characteristics like rounded corners,
projected moldings and superstructures done with perishable materials.
Of the hegemony of Izamal on an ample region is
evidenced by the roads that joined the city with dependent populations
- like Kantunil, 18 kilometers to the south, and Aké, 29
kilometers to the west and by the control upon commerce and the
production of salt through Xcambó, a port located at the
Northern coast of the peninsula.
Five pre-Columbian structures are still visible
in Izamal (and from a considerable distance in all directions).The
first one is a pyramid dedicated to a solar deity, Kinich Kak Moo,
which means macaw of fire, solar face, where worship is rendered
to this deity as a source of life, by offering flowers, fruits,
animals and aromatic substances. This building is the highest of
Yucatan and, by its volume, the third most important of the country.
It reaches 35 meters of height. In the base its walls measure 195
meters from east to west and 173 meters from north to south. Upon
this base a pyramid of 10 levels exists.
Towards the Southeast there is the so called pyramid
Itzamatul and, located at the south flank of what used to be an
enormous square, there is a structure denominated Ppap Hol Chak,
partially destroyed in the 16th century when the Franciscan monastery
was constructed upon it.
The southwestern side of the central square is
limited by another well-known pyramid Hun Pik Tok, and in the west
the public space is closed with the temple of Kabul, where a great
stucco large mask of Itzamná god existed, which was drawn
in 1840 by Federick Catherwood and published by John Lloyd Stephens.
Other residential constructions that are samples
of Izamal's historical development are the Xtul, the Habuc and the
Chaltun Has. These great knolls are witnesses of a process of superposition
of buildings that lasted several centuries and that originally supported
a series of temples and palaces.
In order to determine the religious social, political
and administrative importance of pre-Hispanic Izamal, it is convenient
to mention that after more than one decade of research works, 163
archaeological structures have been mapped within the urban area
of the contemporary city and also thousands of residential units
in a series of pre Hispanic communities located in the surroundings
have been registered. Also, in the whole region that historically
was called Ah Kin Chel, hundreds of sites have been detected that
shared the same architectonic characteristics of Izamal. At the
present time, there are still little more than 20 structures left
that all together make of Izamal, archaeologically spoken a first
rank site for the country.
After the conquest of Yucatán in the 16th
century, the Spaniards demanded the foundation and construction
of a city, which began upon the existing Mayan city. Due to the
presence of two enormous structures, it was decided to build a small
Christian temple on the greater pyramid and a great Franciscan convent
upon the Acropolis. This convent received the name of San Antonio
The construction of the convent began in 1553 by
fray Diego de Landa. Given the dimensions of the pyramid, the land
of the set of the church and the caretaker's office of the convent,
chapel and vestibule, occupy 14 thousand 678 square meters. The
church is found in the center with its facade to the west. The temple
and caretaker's office were finished in 1554. The architect of this
last part was fray Juan de Mérida.
The work of the convent concluded in 1561, being guardian fray Francisco
de la Torre.
The church has a barrel vault and tracery, some
windows of Moorish arcs and flying buttresses in the apse that give
it an excellent aspect. It conserves the title of the Purísima
Concepción (the Purest Conception). It is a single ship
of 51,90 meters in length. In the central part the two lateral doors
communicate to the left with the convent and the right with a common
courtyard and the chapel of the Third Order.
To the north of the church the convent was built,
to the east the orchard and the cemetery with his chapel; in the
lower part are located, to the south, the temple of the Third Order
and, to the west, the great vestibule, whose arcade was finished
And so was built what would be the greatest religious
center of the Mayan converted to the Catholicism in the Yucatán
Peninsula; like in pre-Hispanic time when worship was rendered
to Itzamná, Izamal became the destiny of multiple peregrinations
that - still today, arrive daily to celebrate patron saints in the
diverse chapels of the site.
Also, Izamal has been named "City of the Three Cultures",
in reference to the architectonic and cultural fusion of the pre-Columbian,
colonial and modern societies in the architectural styles found
in its houses and public spaces that have given identity to its
Izamal has been a great center of religious peregrination
from immemorial times. For the Mayans of today, Izamal continues
being the destiny of their pilgrimages, since the image of the Immaculate
Conception of Maria, gained its devotion. The image that presides
over the greater altarpiece of the temple of the convent - Our Lady
of Izamal - was taken to Izamal from Guatemala by orders of Fray
Diego de Landa (the well-known and controversial bishop from Yucatán,
author of the "Relation of the things of Yucatán"
who lived in Izamal).
In Izamal the Mayan language is spoken, at least,
as much as Spanish. As for the language, the rites, the architecture,
in this community of sober, white and yellow houses, ancestral customs
remain : the crossbred food, the way of dressing, the music... daily
routine expressions are the synthesis of a distant past in the time,
but as near as the Mayan monuments that rise in the center of the
town, between houses of the colonial time (end of extract) :
State map of Yucatán :
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